Unix version of SAS is
commonly used in organizations with large number of users.
Additionally, PC SAS and its Remote SUBMIT features are used to connect
to Unix SAS. While working with Unix SAS an analyst or SAS Programmer
should be comfortable with a few Unix navigation and
utility commands that enables him/her to work independently and
efficiently. Here are some topics I thought would be useful.
Where and how typically
Unix is used :
- Mostly the servers are Unix
based with an ip address (e.g 188.8.131.52). SAS will be
installed in this server and also some facility for file storage.
- Mostly Databases/warehouses are in UNIX
servers – Oracle and SAS based data warehouses.
- SAS in Unix Server using
Signon, Rsubmit, and batch execution etc.
- Files/datasets are uploaded and
downloaded to and from Unix Servers(server folders)
Many a times the data is
permanently stored in one of the Unix servers. One should know how to
use a library function to store and retrieve a dataset in unix. For
example, if the allocated space is in
‘/projects/dual_cards/jkurian ‘, to save or retrieve a SAS dataset into
this location, you need to declare a library name in SAS program
Proc datasets will list all
the datasets in this location.
Note that in Unix, the ‘/’
sing is used to separate the directories. Reverse is the case
when you work with windows.
‘Saswork’ is a location in
Unix (server space) where SAS does the data processing by default. It’s
a shared space where each SAS Unix user is allocated with space to
process their request. Typically the size of SASwork runs into 100 plus
GBs but due to the number of users and volume of data used, this space
gets consumed very fast. Exhausting this space can lead to
terminating all the SAS program submitted by multiple users hence it’s
a responsibility of an analyst to monitor this space.
Let us learn 15 Unix
commands listed below. These commands are commonly used in consumer
finance environment and meet 90% of the requirements while
working with Unix SAS.
to see what’s the present working directory
Lists the files and folders
ls –l :
detailed listing of files and directories
Wildcard usage: ls –l *.
/home/jkurian> ls –l
make a directory
change into a directory
Usage: cd <folder
cp : to
copy a files/directory
<filename> <folder name/filename>
remove a directory
remove a file
: Remove files and directories, recursively, empty or not
to read a text file (csv, sas pgm etc) .prints the contents to the
Change file attributes (Read / Write / Executable for owner, group
777 <filename/folder name>
Tips: 777- all access, 775
– all access to the group, 700- protect files
to compress a file
Unzips the files that are compressed
grep – a
very powerful text searching command. Always used when we want to list
the files created by a user or space utilization.
Usage 1: ls -l | grep
jkurian – returns all files created by jkurian
Usage 2: grep
‘jkurian’ *.sas – lists lines where there is a ‘jkurian’
occurrence anywhere inside the .SAS files
- Lists the processes currently running. Useful when we want to kill
some program we submitted.
Usage: ps -ef |
grep <user id> lists all the process id for that particular
user. Process ID or PIDs are required to kill a particular process.
kill –9 - Kills
a specified process that’s submitted by the user.
Usage : kill –9
<PID> - PID Obtained by using ‘ps’ command.
df -k .
Shows the space utilized and space available for the root folder.
Helpful to estimate the space availability. Space is showed in
Steps to see the SASWORK
- Telnet/Logon to the Server (unix
sever of your business)
- Issue command ‘cd
/saswork’ - if /saswork is the work folder
- Issue command ‘df –k .’
The space utilization would
be printed to the screen. Don’t submit a program unless there is enough
space free (At least 10% free)
Steps to know how many
folders are created in SASWORK
- Telnet/Logon to the Server (your
- Issue command ‘cd /saswork’
- Issue command ls –l | grep ‘jkurian’
Substitute your username
instead of ‘jkurian’, to get of folders created by you in SAS
work. Its important to clean up the dead or orphan processes in
your SASwork to optimize the saswork space.
Steps to remove a folder
in SASWORK that’s no more required
- Go to /saswork
- Issue command ls –l | grep
‘jkurian’ to see the folders created by you
- Issue command rm –R
<foldername> to remove the entire folder.
If you want to remove only
files inside a folder, do ‘cd’ into that folder and use ‘rm
<filename> ‘ command to remove the file.
FTP and How to work
File transfer protocol- we
use ftp utility/command to transfer files (sas pgms, datasets, text
outputs) between servers and also to upload and download between
desktop and servers.
FTP from desktop
- Go to START/RUN and type ftp <remote server name/ip>
(Just like telnet)
FTP between two
Unix servers (say two unix servers in your business) - Issue ‘
ftp <ip address>‘ command in the Unix shell prompt.
put : put
get : get
*.sas –matches the pattern
turns the prompt off
the transfer mode to binary- use it for excel, datasets etc
change local directory path
pwd : see
present working directory
files and folders in the remote server.
Steps to run a SAS program
in a Telnet Session (Unix Server)
First create a SAS program
and store it in one of the Unix folders OR FTP a program from the
desktop. At the shell prompt issue the following command
/home/jkurian> nohup sas
nohup: to protect
from hang ups – you can close the telnet window and the program would
be still running!
Sas: key word to invoke SAS
program to execute the program
&: Running the program
in background – you can continue work in the same terminal
You can locate the log and
output files within the same directory as you submitted the program.